AN INVESTIGATION OF STUDENTS’ CRITICAL THINKING ABILITY IN READING
Using critical thinking is one of the important skills that should be mastered by students in reading. It is useful for them to know the purpose of the text and the text types they read. However, most students still found it difficult to use critical thinking in reading because they are not accustomed to using their critical thinking while reading the text, like finding the main idea and synonyms of words that are suitable to the context of the sentence. This research is to find out the research questions: 1). what are the types of critical thinking skills used by students in reading comprehension? 2). what are the problems encountered by the students when using critical thinking skills in reading? It is descriptive qualitative research which is mostly described in written text. It was conducted in the English Department of IAIN Lhokseumawe, especially the fifth-semester students who passed the Writing III subject and were learning Academic Writing subject. To collect the data, the researchers used a questionnaire with 22 statements and an interview. In analyzing the data, they used the Likert scale technique for the questionnaires and used Miles and Huberman for the interview. The findings show that based on the questionnaire sheets of students, it is discovered that among other critical thinking skills, the inference is the one that is often used by students as critical thinking ability in reading, which is 15%. It means that students have the ability to infer the meaning of the proverb from the reading text, to predict the main idea of reading text from title or subtitle, to speculate from various clues (e.g. context) when they cannot understand the text, to make reasonable inference without reading the rest of the text and to understand the implicit conclusion. Analysis skill is used as an average score of 9.2%. The explanation skill is used less, with an average percentage is 6.7%. Next, evaluation and interpretation skill is used less with average percentages are 5.7% and 5.25% respectively. The least used by students is self-regulation skills, with an average percentage is 5%. Moreover, six problems made students seemed difficult to use critical thinking skills in reading; lack of practice, lack of language mastery, implied meaning, background (prior) knowledge, repetition, and lack of vocabulary. In brief, to think critically about the passage, students should early improve their language competency itself.
Barchers, S. I (1998). Teaching Reading: From process to practice. California: Wadsworth Publishing Company.
Barchers. (1998) Readers Theatre for Beginning Readers. Ideas and scripts for readers' theater productions for younger children.
Biklen, S. K., & Bogdan, R. C. (1992). Qualitative Research for Education: An Introduction to Theory and Method (2nd ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
Brown, A. L., & Palinscar, A. S. (1982). Inducing Strategies Learning from Text by Means of Informed Self-regulation. Topic in Learning and Leaning Disabilities, 2, 1.17
Chamot, A. U & O’Malley, J. M. (1987). The Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach: A Bridge to the mainstream. TESOL Quarterly, 21, 227-249.
Chou, P. T. (2011). The Effects of Vocabulary Knowledge and Background Knowledge on Reading Comprehension of Taiwanese EFL students. Electronic Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 8(1), 108-115.
Choy, S. C., & Cheah, P. K. (2009). Teacher Perceptions of Critical Thinking Among Students and Its Influence of Taiwanese EFL Students. Electronic Journal of Teaching and Learning in Higher Education, 20(2), 198-206.
Cowell, L. S. (2012). Pre-teaching Vocabulary to Improve Comprehension in a Narrative Text (Published Dissertation). Faculty of Auburn University. Auburn, Alabama.
Creswell, J. W. (2003). Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Method Approaches. London: Sage.
Crook, J. (2006). Substantive critical thinking as developed by the foundation for critical thinking proves effective in raising sat and cat test scores at westside high school. NCA Final Documentation Report. Retrieved from http://www.criticalthinking.org/pages/subtantive-critical-thinking-as developed-by-the-foundation-for-critical-thinking-proves-effective-in-raising-sat-and-act-test-scores/632.
Duron, R., Limbach, & Waugh, W. (2006). Critical thinking framework for any discipline. International Journal in Teaching and Learning Higher Education, 17(2), 160-166.
Djiwandono, P. I. (2013). Critical Thinking Skills for Language Students. TEFLIN Journal, 24(1), 32-47
Elder, L. & Paul, R. (2011). Thinking to some purpose. Journal of Developmental Education, 25(1), 40-41.
Elley, V. (2009). Creating Strategic Reader. California: International Reading Association inc.
Ellis, N. C. & Robinson, P. (2008). Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics and Second Language Acquisition. New York: Routledge.
Facione, A. P. (2006). Critical Thinking: What it is and Why it Counts. California: California Academic Press.
Fahim, M., & Sa’eepour, M. (2011). The Impact of Teaching Critical Thinking Skills on Reading Comprehension of Iranian EFL Learners. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 2(24), 867-874.
Fraenkel, J. R., & Wallen, N. E. (2006). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Grabe, W. (1991). Current Developments in Second Language Reading Research. TESOL Quarterly, 25(3), 375-406
Grabe, W. (2009). Reading in a Second Language: Moving from Theory to Practice. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Graesser, A. C., Hastings, W. P., & Hastings, W. K. (2001). Constructing Inferences and Relations During Text Comprehension. Text Representation: Linguistic and Psycholinguistic Aspects, 8, 249-271.
Grellet, F. (1981). Developing Reading Skill: A Practical Guide to Reading Comprehension Exercises. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Halpern. (1999). “Teaching Critical Thinking for Transfer Across Domains: Disposition, Skills, Structure Training, and Metacognitive Monitoring.” American Psychologist, 53, 449–455.
Harris, T. L., & Hodges, R. E. (1995). The Literacy Dictionary. Newark: International Reading Association.
Harris, A. J., & Sipay, E. R. (1980). How to Increase Reading Ability: A Guide to Developmental and Remedial Methods (7th Ed.). New York: Longman.
Hartmann, R. R. K., & Stork F. C. (1972). Dictionary of Language and Linguistics. London: Applied Science.
Hirsch, E. D. J. (2003). Reading Comprehension Requires Knowledge of Words and the World. American Educators, 5, 10-20
Jie, Z., Yuhong, J., & Yuan, Y. (2014). The investigation on critical thinking ability in EFL reading class. English Language Teaching, 8(1), 1-12.
Junining, E. (2015). Critical Thinking Stages in Reading. Retrieved September 27, 2019 from http://fib.ub.ac.id/wrp-con/uploads/Critical-Thinking-Stages-in-Reading.pdf
Kamali, Z., & Fahim M. (2011). The Relationship between Critical Thinking Ability of Iranian EFL Learners and Their Resilience Level facing Unfamiliar Vocabulary Items in Reading. Journal of Language Teaching and Research. 2(1), 104-111
Kameo, R. M. (2007). Critical Thinking in The Classroom: Some Cultural Contraints. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, 7(1). 1-13.
Kazemi, M., Hosseini, M., & Kohandani, M. (2013). Strategy Reading Instruction in EFL Contexts. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 12(3), 2333-2342.
Lauer, T. (2005). Teaching Critical Thinking Skills Using Course Content Material. Journal of College Science Teaching. 34(6). 34-44
Mark, S. (2004). Conceptual Foundation of Teaching Reading. New York: The Guildford Press.
Miles, M..B., & Huberman, A.M. (1984). Qualitative data analysis: An introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Nunan, D. (1999). Designing tasks for the communicative classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Paul, R. W. (1985). Bloom’s Taxonomy and Critical Thinking Intervention. Educational Leadership, 42(8), 36-39.
Palincsar. (2003). Reciprocal Teaching of Comprehension-Fostering and Comprehension-Monitoring Activities. Cognition and Instruction, 2, 117-175.
Prasetyo, Jannah, Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif: Teori dan Aplikasi, Jakarta: PT Raja Grafindo Persada, 2006.
Setyosari, Punaji. 2010. Metode Penelitian Pendidikan dan Pengembangan. Jakarta: Kencana.